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來源自 美國 Healthy Omega3 Fish Oil
本文僅作中文翻譯,不加入任何註解。

Fish Oil And Pregnancy. Or Should Expectant Mums Take Omega 3?
魚油和懷孕。孕婦應該攝取Omega-3嗎?

You’re pregnant and want to take fish oil. Pregnancy though, may be different.
妳懷孕了,想吃魚油。然而,每個人懷孕的情況都不盡相同。

It’s a common question. Should you take fish oil during pregnancy? Of course if you’re pregnant you’ve got 2 to think of before you decide to take Omega 3 supplements. Pregnancy is a special condition for this reason.

這是一個常見的問題:懷孕期間妳應該補充魚油嗎?當然、如果妳懷孕了,在決定開始食用魚油前,妳已經有兩件事要考慮。畢竟懷孕是算是一種特殊狀況。

The first thing to say always when talking about fish oil in pregnancy is to see your doctor. There’s all sorts of considerations that may be particular to you, and a doctor knows about those considerations. We can only talk about Omega 3 during pregnancy from a general perspective, not specifically in relation to you.

當我們說到懷孕期間吃魚油,第一件要說的事就是去看醫生。每個人的身體都有千百種特殊的狀況,只有妳的醫生瞭解這些情況。我們這裡討論懷孕期間是否要吃魚油,是針對最一般的情況,而不是特殊的狀況。

There’s a 2 different questions to ask here. Is fish oil safe during pregnancy? And are there benefits to taking fish oil during pregnancy? Because there’s no reason to take it even if it’s safe if there’s no benefits.

這裡有兩個不同的問題。第一、懷孕期間食用魚油安全嗎?第二、懷孕期間食用魚油有什麼好處?畢竟如果沒任何好處的話,即使它是安全的,我們也沒有理由要吃它。

Question number 1. Is fish oil safe during pregnancy?

問題一:懷孕期間食用魚油安全嗎?

There is no evidence of any risks from taking fish oil in pregnancy, other than the regular, though very limited, side effects. These are, as long as you take no more than the recommended dosage, the risk of some reflux or “fishy burps”, perhaps some temporary stomach upset and perhaps a fishy taste in the mouth. These are rare, not dangerous and usually go away.

沒有任何證據顯示,懷孕期食用魚油會有什麼危險,在正常情況之外,只有極少數的案例有副作用。在建議食用量的標準之下,有的人會有逆流,或是打嗝有魚腥味,或是暫時性腸胃不適,或是嘴吧當中有魚腥味。但上述這些情況其實很少見,一點也不危險,而且通常過一段時間就會恢復正常。

For people with some specific medical conditions there is a slightly more elevated risk, particularly of some bleeding, so if you have a particular medical condition then you should, as we say, consult your doctor.

正在接受一些特殊醫療治療的人,會有一點點偏高的危險,特別是跟出血有關的。所以如果妳有這些特殊的醫療狀況,像我們之前所說的,請詢問妳的醫生。

There are even people who look for pregnancy safe fish oil supplements, but these are not necessary and we don’t know of any Omega 3 supplements with a particular formulation to be “pregnancy safe”. All should be safe.

有的人甚至刻意去尋找孕婦專用、安全的魚油產品,但這些都是不必要的,因為我們沒看到有任何一支魚油產品是針對「孕期安全」而使用特殊配方。因為,所有的產品都很安全。

That’s the answer. No evidence of any particular risks to taking Omega 3 during pregnancy.

這就是答案了。懷孕期間食用魚油,沒有證據顯示會有任何的危險。

Question number 2. Is it beneficial to take fish oil supplements during pregnancy?

問題二:懷孕期間食用魚油有任何好處嗎?

This is really 2 questions. Is it beneficial to the mother, and is it beneficial to the baby?

其實這是兩個問題。第一是對媽媽有什麼好處?第二,對寶寶有什麼好處?

Yes it should be beneficial to the mother because there is so much evidence of the benefits of Omega 3 to the health. We’ve gone into them elsewhere on our site. But what about the baby?

有的。Omega-3對媽媽的健康有好多的益處。這些在我們網站中都已經討論過了。那麼,對寶寶呢?

Like all these things it’s hard to say what is proven and what is not. There are plenty of studies showing benefits of fish oil supplementation to developing babies, but at what point are those benefits proven? Hard to say.

很多事情很難說被證實與否。即使已經有很多的研究報告魚油對寶寶生長發育會帶來許多好處,但究竟這些證據是否充足呢?很難說。

Lets look at what some of the studies say. Firstly in relation to fetal brain development. The brain is made up of a large percentage of fat, and a large percentage of that fat is DHA, an Omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acid in fish and fish oil supplements.

來看看一些報告怎麼說。首先是跟胎兒的大腦發育有關。大腦的組成有很大的一部分是脂肪,而脂肪當中很大的一部分是DHA。DHA就是在魚或是魚油產品中,屬於Omega-3不飽和脂肪酸的一種。

As the fetus develops it needs essential fatty acids to do so, including to develop it’s brain. These are not made in the body, and so are only available from the food that the mother eats. If she eats plenty of good Omega 3 rich fish then the fetus may get enough. If she doesn’t it may not.

胚胎需要一些必要的脂肪酸來成長,當然也包括大腦的發育。這些脂肪酸身體不會自行形成,唯一的來源就是媽媽吃的食物。如果媽媽吃了富含Omega-3的魚,胎兒就能獲得足夠的營養。相反的,媽媽吃不夠,胚胎自不足,則不確定。

And studies have also shown that children of mothers who took fish oil pregnancy had better sleep patterns as infants.

還有其他的報告說,在懷孕期媽媽有補充魚油的話,寶寶在出生後也會有較好的睡眠模式。

It is thought t然也會補充不足。

Studies have concluded that there are benefits to the brain development of the fetal brain. This results, according to some studies, in improvements in childhood coordination including hand/eye coordination, as well as improvements in mental acuity, comprehension and vocabulary.

研究並總結出一些對胎兒大腦發展的好處。研究報告顯示,對孩童的協調性有助益,包括手/ 眼的協調,對智能的敏銳、理解力和字彙都有改善。

Other studies have shown that children with ADHD had less DHA in their systems than those without. But whether this comes from pregnancy or later isn’t clear.

其他的研究也指出,患有ADHD(注意力缺陷過動症)的孩童,跟正常的孩童相比,身體中含有較少的DHA。但是否是懷孕期補充不足或是出生後攝取hat the third trimester is the most important time for taking fish oil in pregnancy, as this is when the brain is developing the most. It has been found that preterm infants have low levels of DHA because they have not gone full term so had all the benefits of the last 3 months of brain development and build up of brain DHA..So this suggests also that Omega 3 supplementation during pregnancy should not be just confined to the third trimester but should be undertaken right through pregnancy.

一般認為,懷孕的最後三個月是補充魚油最重要的時期,因為那是大腦發展最快速的時候。早產兒被發現大腦中含有較少的DHA,因為他們並沒有完成大腦發展的最後三個月,腦中的DHA累積不足。所以,建議孕期的最後三個月也不要中斷魚油的補充,最好整個孕期都要吃。

And there are also studies showing that low Omega 3 levels in pregnancy can lead to premature births and low birth weights.

也有研究指出,在懷孕期間Omega-3的量若是不足,會導致早產兒,而且也容易體重過輕。

Overall there is very strong evidence of the benefits of Omega 3 supplements in pregnancy. As we say it’s hard to say when it’s fully proven, but the evidence is very strong.

We conclude with a quote from an article in the New Scientist (Feb 07)

總之,有很多強而有力的證據顯示了孕期補充魚油的好處。如之前所言,很難說這些是否被完全證明,但是實驗數據是十分有力的。在2007年二月,New Scientist雜誌中有一段話:

“children whose mothers ate the least amount of seafood during pregnancy showed the worst performance on tests of social development and verbal IQ”

「懷孕期間媽媽如果完全不吃海鮮,小孩在社交發展及口語IQ的測試裡,是表現最差的。」

Should you get your Omega 3 fats from fish or from supplements?

妳應該從魚肉中獲取Omega-3,還是魚油產品?

There’s plenty of government warnings against eating too much fish generally, but particularly during pregnancy, because of the toxins now found in fish, like mercury. That’s not to say eat no fish, but the only safe way to get daily DHA and other Omega 3 fats in pregnancy is to take the best fish oil supplements money can buy.

政府一直在警告不要吃太多魚,特別是懷孕期間,因為現在在魚肉當中發現了一些毒素,像是汞金屬。這並不是說不要吃魚,但是,對孕婦而言,最安全能夠補充每日DHA和其他Omega-3脂肪酸的方式就是補充魚油產品。

Note that not all fish oil supplements are the same, read our article aboutcomparing Omega 3 supplementsto find out more.

要注意的是並不是所有的魚油產品都是一樣的,可以讀讀我們比較魚油產品的文章。

NOTE 1

注意一

What we’ve discussed here isn’t all, though it’s getting pretty long. Here’s a list of some of the other benefits of fish oil pregnancy that have been suggested by the studies. These are benefits to the mother, not the baby.

即使我們已經說了那麼多,這些討論都還不是全部。下列是研究報告顯示懷孕期間食用魚油對媽媽的好處。這些好處是針對媽媽的,而不是寶寶。

1. Lower risk of postpartum depression.降低產後憂鬱症的危險

2. Reduced risk of breast cancer.減少乳癌的危險

3. Lower risk of developing pre-eclampsia.降低子癲前症的危險

4. Reduced risk of a cesarean birth.減少剖腹產的危險

NOTE 2

注意二

1. One other important point to make is this. One of the most important factors in the development of infants is breast feeding. The infant gets his DHA, once born, through his food. So through mothers milk. If the mother is deficient in DHA this will result in less to the infant, good reasons to take fish oil supplements after pregnancy.

1、另一個重點要說的是,影響嬰兒發育最重要的因素之一是母乳。寶寶在出生後,會從食物中攝取DHA,而這裡的食物指的就是母乳。如果媽媽DHA不足的話,寶寶自然也會補充不足。所以,生產後補 充魚油產品也很重要。

2. When referring to fish oil supplements we are not referring to cod liver oil. There are specific issues associated with excess vitamin A in cod liver oil and it is not generally recommended for this reason.
In our view there is clear evidence for the benefits of fish oil. Pregnancy is no different, except that there are 2 people getting the benefits, the mother, and the soon to be infant.

2、這裡說的魚油產品,指的並不是魚肝油。魚肝油中的維他命A,攝取過量的話會產生很多問題,所以我們通常都不建議食用魚肝油。我們可以看到,食用魚油的好處是顯而易見的。懷孕食用魚油的好處跟一般人吃魚油的好處是一樣的,不同之處在於會有兩個人得到益處,媽媽,和小嬰兒。